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Purpose: This study was done to identify the level of stress, hardiness, and professional burnout of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses and to provide basic data for the qualitative improvement of nursing work achievement in the workplace. Method: The data were obtained from 129 ICU nurses through a questionnaire. Results: Stress showed positive correlation with the level of professional burnout and there was negative correlation between hardiness and professional burnout. Nurses in the group with a high level of stress, and a high level of hardiness reported a low level of professional burnout compared to those in the group with a lower level of hardiness (t=-2.60, p= .012). Nurses in the group with a low level of hardiness and a low level of stress showed a lower level of professional burnout than those with a high level of stress (t=3.51, p= .001). Conclusion: The results show that the high level of stress when coupled with a low level of hardiness of ICU nurses results in a high level of professional burnout. For this reason, it is important for nursing administration to support nurses to reduce levels of stress and the resulting burnout in ICU nurses.