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Purpose: This study was done to develop a pain management protocol for nursing home patients with dementia and to examine effects of the protocol on pain assessments and interventions by the nurses and on pain relief signs in the patients. Method: The six steps in the protocol development and the examination of effect are outlined. Three rounds using the Delphi technique and one group pretest-posttest design experiment were developed. Design issues, such as sample selection and sample size, are addressed in relation to the study protocol. Results: After implementation of the pain management protocol, there were significant changes nursing actions including frequency of number of physical examinations, utilization of pain assessment tools, and request to doctors for discomfort management and there were significant changes in frequency in the number of verbal and physical expressions of pain, and emotional patterns. Conclusion: This is the first pain management protocol for patients with dementia in Korea. However, more study will be needed to determine the methodological strength and necessary revisions for the protocol.