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The unique antigenic determinants (Idiotype [Id]) of the immunoglobulin expressed on a given B-cell malignancy can serve as a tumor-specific antigen for active immunotherapy. Therapeutic vaccines targeting the tumor-specific idiotype have demonstrated promising results against lymphomas in phase I/II studies and are currently being evaluated in phase III randomized trials. Additional vaccine therapies being developed include those based on DNA, dendritic cells, gene-modified tumor cells. It is hoped that immunotherapeutic agents, used in tandem or in combination, may in the future allow effective treatment of lymphoid malignancies and delay or even replace the need for conventional cytotoxic therapies.