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This study is based on the grade 3 National Diagnostic Assessment of Basic Competency(NDABC) in 2005. The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of NDABC by students' gender. It was 19,257 grade 3 students that participated in this study. The average scores are 89.41 and 88.34 for each male and female. The percentage of Below-Basic level for male students is 4.6% and for female 5.6%. The percentage of female students at Below-Basic level is increasing for 3 years. In particular, the percentage of females at Below-Basic level is higher than that of males in the content of measurement, the cognitive domain of reasoning and problem solving, and the situation of real life. The item difficulty for males is lower in fraction, polygon, and right triangle than for females. But female students need to improve the space sense and the problem solving ability in real life. As for the background of students, males think that mathematics is exciting and not difficult in comparison with what females think. And parents of males are more concerned about children's learning than those of females.