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Undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver is a rare and highly malignant hepatic neoplasm of a mesenchymal origin. This tumor almost exclusively affects pediatric patients, and the prognosis is poor. Although there has been controversy as to the most appropriate treatment, the previous studies have reported that long term survival is possible after complete surgical resection with or without perioperative chemotherapy. We report here on a case of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver, which showed cystic formation, in a 37-year-old woman with no prior history of any hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. She was admitted with right abdominal pain. The physical examination findings were unremarkable except for tenderness in the right abdomen. (J Korean Surg Soc 2007;72:162-165)