초록 close

이 글의 목적은 1993년 이래 실시되고 있는 미얀마의 신헌법 제정과정과 국가구조, 국가수반, 입법부, 행정부의 구성과 역할 등 초안 내용을 분석하고, 이를 토대로 향후 미얀마의 정치질서를 가늠하는 것이다. 현재까지 두 차례에 걸쳐 헌법이 채택되었으나 집권 군부는 최근 헌법인 1974년 헌법을 전면 무효화 하고, 헌법 초안 작성의 소임을 담당할 8개 집단을 지명한 후 1993년부터 총 4회에 걸친 국민회의를 소집하였다. 주요 분석 대상으로는 첫째, 초안 작성 대표단으로 구성된 국민회의의 구성과 조직이다. 국민회의가 소집될 때마다 각 대표단의 수가 증감하는 현상을 보였는데, 분석 결과 군부에 동조하는 집단들이 증가한 반면, 1990년 선거에서 당선된 정당원이나 반체제 소수종족 집단들은 배제되었다. 또한 국민회의 중추 기구들은 군부 출신이나 대부분 군부 체제의 민간관료들로 구성되어 있다. 둘째, 신헌법 초안의 내용과 이에 대한 비판이다. 군부는 중앙 및 지방의회에 일정 수의 군부 의석을 할당해 두었고, 국가 기강을 확립하기 위해 장래 정치질서에서 군부의 주도적 정치참여를 천명하였다. 이는 군부가 주장하는 규율민주주의로 함축된다. 종합적으로 군부에 의해 주도되고 있는 신헌법 초안은 이전의 두 헌법을 취사선택하고 있다. 정치 구조적 측면에서는 1947년 헌법을, 군부의 정치참여를 보장하는 등 내용적 측면에서는 1974년 헌법을 따르고 있다.


Making New Constitution and Future Political Order in Myanmar 장 준 영 (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies) This study aims to prospect the political order in the future of Myanmar analyzing on making constitutional draft process and its content. Although there were two constitutions in 1947 and 1974, present ruling junta, abolished the 1974 constitution, has been calling the eight delegative groups which are responsible to make new constitutional draft since 1993. Here, I firstly analyze the compositional and organizational features of the National Convention which consists of delegations making new constitutional draft. As a calling goes by, the member of delegative groups who align with the junta had been increased, but a few party members who were elected in general election in 1990 and anti-government members had been banned to join it. Three pivotal sub organizations in the National Council consist of military members and civil servants who are line with junta as well. Second, this paper criticizes the content of the constitutional draft. Junta assigned fixed seats regardless of election result in the Union and local Parliament as well as clarified political participation driven by them in the future. This means the “Disciplined Democracy.” In conclusion, new constitutional draft is chose in the previous two constitutions. It follows the 1947 constitution in the aspect of the state structure and the 1974 constitution in substantial aspect, especially political participation of military members.


Making New Constitution and Future Political Order in Myanmar 장 준 영 (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies) This study aims to prospect the political order in the future of Myanmar analyzing on making constitutional draft process and its content. Although there were two constitutions in 1947 and 1974, present ruling junta, abolished the 1974 constitution, has been calling the eight delegative groups which are responsible to make new constitutional draft since 1993. Here, I firstly analyze the compositional and organizational features of the National Convention which consists of delegations making new constitutional draft. As a calling goes by, the member of delegative groups who align with the junta had been increased, but a few party members who were elected in general election in 1990 and anti-government members had been banned to join it. Three pivotal sub organizations in the National Council consist of military members and civil servants who are line with junta as well. Second, this paper criticizes the content of the constitutional draft. Junta assigned fixed seats regardless of election result in the Union and local Parliament as well as clarified political participation driven by them in the future. This means the “Disciplined Democracy.” In conclusion, new constitutional draft is chose in the previous two constitutions. It follows the 1947 constitution in the aspect of the state structure and the 1974 constitution in substantial aspect, especially political participation of military members.