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Purpose: This study compared the response evaluation using the WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for patients with breast cancer with that of the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumor) criteria in order to determine the significance of the RECIST criteria in breast cancer. Methods: Between 2001 and 2005, 42 patients with measurable lesions radiologically receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for a breast carcinoma were enrolled in this study. The results were compared using a kappa test as a concordance measure between the two response criteria. Results: With the WHO criteria, the overall response and progression rate were 35.7% (CR 0, PR 15) and 16.6% (PD 7) respectively. On the other hand, the overall response and progression rate using the RECIST criteria were 38.0% (CR 0, PR 16) and 7% (PD 3) respectively. The kappa value as a concordance measure between two response criteria was 0.718. Conclusion: The RECIST criteria are comparable to the WHO criteria in evaluating the response of breast cancer patients who have undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A comparison of these results with other studies of more common tumor types supports the implementation of RECIST as the standard criteria for evaluating the treatment response but also for monitoring progression. (J Korean Surg Soc 2007;72:89-93)