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The change of political situation in a country can be a threatening factor that overturns the entire art circle of the country. The direct influence of political environment on art is plainly demonstrated in Latin American countries. In particular, the modern and contemporary arts of Peru show the political situation of Peruvian society. After its independence in 1821, colonial culture in the country was gradually cleared off and it was followed by descriptivism that depicted people’s real life using Peruvian colors. Entering the 21st century, Peruvian art made a leap, stepping on national support to the nativistic movements. The foundation of the National Arts School and the discovery of Andean culture of indigenista artists led by Jose Sabogal are recorded as the greatest events in Peruvian modern arts. However, with the rise of antinativism, Peruvian contemporary art was commenced from the independence declared by Grau. Since then, abstractionism and surrealism came forward to the leading position, but they were merely the change of style using the same motif, namely, their indigenous culture from ancient civilization.Several styles have repeated rises and falls in Peruvian modern and contemporary art. Nevertheless, their main theme was Peru, which is shared only in Peru and can be expressed only by Peruvians. The history and culture of Peru were drawn by descriptivism that depicted real life, by nativism following descriptivism, and by abstractionism and surrealism that emerged in reaction to nativism. Although their age and art style were different, they were all ‘Artists Who Painted Peru’ from the viewpoint of what they expressed.