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1116년(예종 11)에 실시된 본품항두제의 제도적 효율성을 의례와 겸직제의 측면에서 확인하고, 무신정권의 성립 이후 제도의 폐지과정을 고찰하였다. 이 제도의 운영 방식에 의하면, 같은 반차의 관인들을 본품항두직의 겸직 여부 또는 그 수에 따라 그 서열을 갈랐으며 그것은 의례에 서는 위치로 표현되었다. 관인들 간의 작은 지위의 차이조차 구별해야 한다는 것이 고려시대 관제 운영 원칙의 하나였으며, 이러한 사실을 본품항두제가 잘 보여주고 있었다. 그리고 본품항두직을 겸직으로 운영했던 것은 본품 관직과 함께 제수함으로써 인사를 보다 원활하게 할 뿐 아니라 본품항두직과 같은 중요한 관직을 수행하는 관인을 우대하기 위한 것이었다. 그런데 무신정권기에 본품항두직을 무반에게 제수하면서 제도의 변질이 시작되었고, 점차 그것이 본품 관직으로 바뀌어 갔으며, 결국 충렬왕대에는 제도 자체가 유명무실해졌다.


This paper have examined the efficiency of the Bonpumhangdu system which had put in act in 1116(the 11th year of the Goryeo king Yejong's reign) in the aspects of court rituals and of plural office-holding system, and have followed the abolishing process during the Military regime(1178~1278). This Bonpumhangdu system was used in placing officials, who belonged to the same rank, in order. The Goryeo officials could decide where he should stand in the royal court according to whether he holds the post of Hangdu of his own rank, or how many Hangdu posts he holds. The official who held the Hangdu post was outranked and could stand in front of other colleagues of the same rank, which was an honor both for the official himself and for his clan. It was one of the main principles of the Goryeo court that even a very small difference among governmental posts should be strictly recognized. The Bonpumhangdu system clearly illustrates this distinctive application of the official regulations of the Goryeo dynasty. As we have seen, the Hangdu post was an additional post given only with a main post. This trait helped the Goryeo personnel management to function harmoniously. It also served as a method of privileging the official who held the post. However, the system got distorted as the Hangdu post was given to the military officers after the Military coup d'eta in 1170. The post was changed into a regular post, not an additional honor as before, and became nominal in the reign of king Chungryeolwang.