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회원들의 선거 참여에서 나타났던 소극적 태도, 종교적 중립성을 지키고자 했던 노력, 종교 해석상 금기시되는 관행의 이용 등은 이들에 의해 실천된 지하드가 현실 타협적 성격을 가진 것이었음을, 즉 현실 변혁을 위한 가장 효과적인 방법을 모색하기보다는 현실 규범에 부합하고 갈등 유발을 최소화시킬 방법으로 진행되었음을 보여준다


The purpose of this paper is to look at the ways of political participation of Muhammadiyah in the Indonesian presidential election of 2004. Muhammadiyah actively participated in the election campaigns, the participation of which is viewed to be a religious duty and a 'political jihad'. This paper aims to understand political influences of Muhammadiyah, which have sometimes been taken for granted and thus been given little attention, its political and religious dynamics at the local level, its appropriation of Islam as political resources and relation of Islam with democratization in Indonesia. The study shows that the 'political jihad' waged by Muhammadiyah members in order to help Dr. Amien Rais to get through the first round of the presidential election was done in compromising ways. Rather than finding out the most effective ways to win the election, their campaign activities resorted to passive methods which could minimize socio-cultural conflicts in everyday interactions. Their major target was those who had been sympathetic to them and they were hesitant to express their political aspirations to those outside the boundary of Muhammadiyah. Amien Rais was not successful in the first round of the presidential election. He ranked at the fourth nationally and at the second in Yogyakarta. The poor election result was attributed by Muhammadiyah members to their lack of political experiences and of competence in political mobilization. Although not pointed out by themselves, this study shows, their compromising and passive attitudes in the election campaign should also be considered. The poor performance of Amien Rais urges us to reconsider political strength of Muhammadiyah in particular and Islamic organizations in general, which has been taken for granted, due to 'the myth of the numerical majority' of Muslims in Indonesia.