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The present study was designed to investigate the effects of film-based dictation practice on listening comprehension skills. Considering that films have been often shown with L1 subtitles to low-proficiency EFL learners, this study also explored the influence of L1 subtitles in dictation practice. The participants were 155 Japanese college students and they were divided into three groups: L1 subtitles (L1) group, no subtitles (NS) group and control group. The L1 group watched a film scene with L1 subtitles before dictation practice, while NS group watched the same scene without any subtitles before the dictation practice. After a 12-week session, two types of listening tests (TOEIC style listening comprehension test and film-based dictation test) and a questionnaire were given to the participants. No major difference was observed between L1 group and NS group in the TOEIC style test, while L1 group scored significantly higher than NS group in the dictation test. The result of the tests revealed that dictation practice made little contribution to improving learners’ listening comprehension, although it improved learners’ listening perception. The results of the questionnaire showed that L1 subtitles produced favorable effects on learners’ attitude toward the exercise. The results of the study suggested that dictation should be incorporated with other teaching techniques in order to improve learners’ listening comprehension.