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본 연구에서는 노인으로만 구성된 가구를 대상으로 선행 연구에서 다루지 않은 설명변수를 투입하고, 패널분석(panel data model)을 활용하여 노인의 특성별로 이들의 빈곤에 영향을 미치는 요인에 대해 살펴보았다. 분석 결과 노인 빈곤에 영향을 미치는 요인들은 연령, 학력, 혼인상태, 자산, 거주지역 등과 함께 과거의 직업력이 중요한 요인임이 확인되었으며, 노인 빈곤에 영향을 미치는 요인들은 노인의 특성별로 다른 결과를 가져왔다. 이러한 분석 결과는 노후의 상황만을 고려한 노인의 탈빈곤정책은 사후적이라는 문제를 제기한다. 따라서 잠재적으로 노인 빈곤층이 될 수 있는 현재의 근로빈곤층에 대한 정책의 중요성과, 현재 보험방식으로 이루어지고 있는 공적연금제도의 전환을 위한 노력을 시사한다.


The purpose of this study is to explore factors influencing the poverty of the elderly in Korea. In spite the fact that poverty of the elderly is more serious than any other demographic group, this important issue is rarely studied. Using the 7-year accumulated data from the KLIPS(Korean Labor and Income Study), I combined the work history of the elders, their demographic characteristics and residence to estimate pooled data analysis of the elderly after reaching age 55 and who are also only living by themselves(only the elders). The results of this study are as followed: first of all, age, education, marital status, wealth, residence and work history are shown to be significant predictors for the poverty of elderly. Second, the results show that factors influencing the poverty is different depending on the elder's (demographic) characteristics. For example, age and marital status is a more important predictor in female than in male, and wealth and health status is a more important predictor in elders who do not have a spouse than in elders who do. Such results suggest that the policy of the poverty of the elderly which is only focused on elder's characteristic is limited. Therefore we can suggest that a policy which workable people can earn decent income and saving wealth for their elderly in job is needed. Especially, policies on the 'Working Poor' and reconstruct the current public pension system is very much needed.