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Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have ben used as diagnostic and analytical reagentscreasingly accepted as therapeutics for human diseases, particularly for cancer, viral infection and autoimmune disorders. An indication of the emerging significance of antibody-based therapeutics is that over a third of the proteins curently undergoing clinical trials in the United States are an-tibodies. Until the late 1980s, antibody technology relied primarily on animal immunization and the expression of engineered antibodies. However, the development of methods for the expresion of antibody fragments in bacteria and powerful techniques for screening combinatorial libraries, opportunities for the engineering of antibodies with tailor-made properties for specific aplica-tions. Antibodies of low imunogenicity, suitable for human therapy and in vivo diagnosis, can now be developed with relative ease. Here, antibody structure-function and antibody engineering technologies are described.