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Generally speaking, the Chinese Chan history can be divided into two periods. The first period ranges from Bodhidharma (菩提達磨), the putative founder of the Chan school (禪宗), to the Five Houses (五家) Division of the Chan (-959). The second period starts when Ganhwa-seon (看話禪 phrase-observing meditation) was being gradually organized in the Song (宋) Dynasty and developed into the Yuan (元) and the Ming (明) Dynasties. Ganhwa-seon is considered only a stream of Chan Buddhism of the second period. However, if we take a look at the character of Chan in the perspective of initial enlightenment (始覺 the first phenomenal actualization of enlightenment), the Ganhwa-seon had already been included in the enlightenment concept of the first Chan period. Accordingly, the Chinese Chan can be said to have been a continuous unfolding and development of the Ganhwa-seon from beginning to end. It is self-evident that Chan Buddhism is a branch of Mahayana Buddhism and belongs to ‘the gate of original enlightenment’ (本覺門 enlightenment is not something to be obtained externally, but exists in full reality here in the present moment). Over time, however, Chan Buddhism developed to conjoin with ‘initial enlightenment’. That is the reason why Chan Buddhism exists and prevails throughout the whole history of Chinese Buddhism following its adoption. Though it might be considered too schematic a formula, it can be said that the first period of Chinese Chan Buddhism is the ‘Chan of faith’ in terms of ‘original enlightenment’ while the second period of the Chinese Chan Buddhism is the ‘Chan of doubt’ The main subject of this paper is to clarify this point. I would especially like to clarify the relationship between ‘inquiring’ and ‘doubt’ in the perspective of ‘initial enlightenment’. The Chinese Chan, speaking briefly, seeks to match the objective Dharma-nature (法性, the nature underlying all thing) to the subjective true nature (眞性, the fundamental nature of each individual, i.e., the Buddha-nature). From the first patriarch Bodhidharma to the all the succeeding Chan masters of the Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties, their Chan practices were focused on ‘Directly pointing to man’s mind’ (直指人心) so that one sees one’s true nature and achieves Buddha-hood. Dahui Zonggao (大慧宗杲 1089-1163), who perfec! ted the Chinese Chan Buddhism, absolutely emphasized that practitioners should have doubt about hwadu (話頭 ‘head phrase’) in order to realize ‘the true viewpoint’ (眞正見解). Dahui Zonggao’s thought on ‘doubt’ is based on faith and it is doubt of the Hwadu. His internal and immanent doubt is represented as ‘inquiring’. Inquiring, in this case, is not an analytical and understandable term. It is an incalculable and unfathomable way of thinking. It frees the mind from active operation. It is not the kind of thinking with quiet sitting like a dead tree, however, it is the thinking with ‘doubt’ derived from the Hwadu. ‘Ganhwa’ (看話 obse rving the key phrase) is the samādhi of perfect unity of body and mind in all activities (一行三昧 ekavyūha-samādhi) of doubt. Through the history of the Chinese Chan School, the approach of Chan practice moved from the faith in original, innate enlightenment (本覺) to the doubt of initial, actualized enlightenment. The training of doubt is represented by the term, ‘ganhwa’. Accordingly, the doubt mass (疑團) of ‘inquiring’ is the initial enlightenment toward sudden enlightenment and ultimately leads to the original enlightenment. Shenhui (神會 668-760) who deified Huineng (慧能) as Sixth Patriarch defined enlightenment as seeing one’s own originally enlightened mind, the Buddha-nature within oneself. To Shenhui, ‘seeing’ (見) means sudden enlightenment. It is also the essence of enlightenment while Dahui Zonggao’s (大慧宗杲 1089-1163) inquiring is the function of the essence. On the other hand, it is generally considered that the Northern School of Chan (北宗禪), which emphasized the religious experience of enlightenment, had been accommodated in the foundation of Ganhwa-seon.