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The structure of nanocrystalline and bulk polycrystalline ZnO were examined up to 85 GPa and 50 GPa, respectively using synchro-tron X-rays and diamond anvil cells at ambient conditions. The transition from the wurtzite to the rock salt phase in the nano-ZnO takesplace at 10.5 GPa; this transition pressure is 1.5 GPa higher than in bulk ZnO. A large volume collapse of about 17.5% is observed duringthe transition in both systems. The rocksalt phase is stable and no structural transitions are observed for both compounds at higher pres-tions for the nano-ZnO.