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Objective: To evaluate the effects of functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) on shoulder subluxation following hemiplegia due to stroke or traumatic brain injury. Method: Twenty-four hemiplegic patients were participated in this study as FMS group (12 subjects) and FES (functional electric stimulation) group (12 subjects). FMS or FES were applied on the supraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscle area for 20 minutes, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. The effect of treatment was evaluated by assessment of the degree of shoulder subluxation using radiologic measurements, pain threshold and pain tolerance pressure, range of motion of the shoulder, muscle power and spasticity. Results: The degree of shoulder subluxation was signifi- cantly decreased after 3 weeks in both groups, and the FMS group improved more than the FES group. However there were no differences between two groups significantly. There was no significant effect of disease duration on change of shoulder subluxation. The ranges of motion of shoulder were increased in FMS group significantly. Pain threshold and pain tolerance pressure were increased in pectoralis major and infraspinatus muscles shortly after FMS application. Conclusion: This study suggests that the FMS could be applied effectively in preventing and reducing the shoulder subluxation in patient with hemplegia irrespective of disease duration. (J Korean Acad Rehab Med 2007; 31: 48-55)