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Sohn, Young-mi. “Against the Victorian Grain: Facets of Temporality in Walter Pater.” Studies on English Language & Literature. 33.1(2007): 21-41. Pater tends to define and evaluate characters and events in terms of time, and his work is most interesting if we look at the way he modulates and sometimes disturbs the idea of linear time. As a Victorian, he maintains a strong belief in the idea of flux and evolution, but as a late Romantic, he longs for a time when everything was fixed and rooted in an orderly and timeless fashion. Another extremely important, personal factor that affects his perception of time is his homoerotic desires. These conflicting backgrounds of course lead to a unique attitude toward time that is characterized by paradox and a solipsistic and somewhat nihilistic vision that puts him squarely opposite the mainstream of Victorianism. Such conception of time was also responsible for the historical and cultural relativism and the aestheticism that had such a wide-ranging and damaging repercussions both for him and his disciples in the repressive atmosphere of his time. However, it also made him an important precursor for later greats including James Joyce, Marcel Proust, and Emmanuel Levinas. (Wonkwang University)