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Waste policies with waste metering system and recycling in 1995 have contributed to the reduction of solid waste generation. Now rural areas as well as urban areas produce less amount of solid wastes in terms of per capita. However most policies in relation to waste issue have been concentrated in urban areas. Large portion of agricultural waste in rural region are being illegally treated such as open incineration or burned out on the road. In this study, we assessed the atmospheric air quality and health risk by illegal open incineration in rural region. In case of benzene level, worst concentration during illegal open incineration was 0.23 ppm and cancer risk by exposure was estimated to 2.29103.