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The purposes of this study were to analyze the profitability of audited restaurant franchise firms and to investigate the financial variables affecting profitability. This study decomposed profit variation into the three main factors comprising the Du Pont Identity (operating efficiency, asset use efficiency and financial leverage). The operating efficiency of restaurant franchise firms was on the rise until 2004, but dropped dramatically in 2005. Especially, the profit margin dropped from 13.46% in 2004 to 6.54% in 2005. The asset use efficiency has been decreasing since 2003. The total asset turnover ratio, which can be indicative of over-investment, dropped from 1.55 in 2003 to 1.50 in 2005. The financial leverage remained stable after 2002. There were major differences in debt accumulation among the firms, and the current level of debt was thought to be higher in the restaurant industry than in other industries. Based on the results of a multiple regression analysis, we concluded that the factors affecting ROE were the debt-equity ratio, total asset turnover and the size of the firm. The debt-equity ratio and total asset turnover had a significantly positive effect on ROE, while the firm size had a significantly negative effect on ROE. However, the current ratio and sales growth rate were not significant. The finding that firm size and profitability were negatively related implied that restaurant franchise firms should pursue qualitative growth rather than quantitative growth. There was no major difference in profitability between domestic brands and foreign brands. However, the domestic brand was more efficient in terms of asset usage than the foreign brand.