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The purpose of this study was to investigate North Korean child defectors and South Korean children’s pro-socialmoral reasoning, pro-social decision-making, moral reasoning and moral judgement on violence. The participantswere 82 North Korean child defectors and 186 South Korean children in Seoul and Kyunggi Province. Allrespondents answered self-report questionnaires including 6 stories of pro-social moral conflicts and 4 stories ofmoral conflicts on violence. Data were analyzed by independent sample t-test, Scheff test, repeated measureANOVA and one-way ANOVA. The major findings were as follows. First, North Korean child defectors showed abigger difference between the level of pro-social moral reasoning in close relationship situations and that in distantrelationship situations than South Korean children did. In the 11-13 year old group, North Korean child defectorsshowed lower level of pro-social moral reasoning than that of South Korean children. Second, children showed morehelping responses in close relationship situations than in distant relationship situations. The 11-13 year old groupChildren also showed more helping responses than the 14-16 year old group did. Third, 11-13 year old South Korean children showed a higher level of moral reasoning on violence than the North Korean child defectors did. Finally, North Korean child defectors judged violence with a justifiable intention as being more wrong than South Korean children did.