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Our environment is faced with serious problems related to the air pollution from automobiles in these days. In particular, the exhaust emissions of diesel engine are recognized main cause which influenced environment strong. In this study, the potential possibility of biodiesel fuel was investigated as an alternative fuel for a naturally aspirated common rail diesel engine. The smoke emission of biodiesel fuel 5vol-%(min. content) was reduced in comparison with diesel fuel, that is, it was reduced approximately 60% at 4000rpm, full load. But, power, torque and brake specific energy consumption didn't have no large differences. But, NOx emission of biodiesel fuel was increased compared with a commercial diesel fuel. Also, the effects of exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) on the characteristics of NOx emission has been investigated. It was found that simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx was achieved with biodiesel fuel(5vol-%) and cooled EGR method(5∼10%) in a common rail diesel engine.