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1919년 일본의 조선 문제에 대한 정치과정은 31운동을 전후한 일본 정부내부의 대립과 타협을 담고 있다. 식민지조선의 지배체제는 31운동을 기점으로 무단통치에서 문화통치로 전환되었다. 이러한 정책전환은 식민지조선 민중의 31운동이 없었다면 일어날 수 없었다. 또한 이것은 일본정치의 변화와도 맞물려 있었다. 이 시기는 야마가타벌을 비롯한 번벌세력이 정치적으로 후퇴하고, 하라 다카시의 정당세력이 대두한 때이기도 하였다. 하세가와 요시미치 조선총독의 후임인사로 사이토 마고토가 결정되기까지 복잡한 정치과정을 거쳤다. 야마가타 아리토모는 조선에서의 군부지배를 계속하기 위해, 하라는 조선에서의 육군지배를 약화시키기 위해 각각의 입장에서 해군 퇴역장군인 사이토를 선택했다. 총독인사문제를 결정한 이후 조선총독부 관제개혁이 중심적인 문제로 부상했다. 관제개혁의 결과 야마가타벌과 육군의 실제적인 조선지배에는 그다지 변화가 보이지 않았고, 하라 내각총리대신은 식민지 조선에 대한 영향력을 행사할 수 있는 방법을 갖지 못했다. 결국 하라는 미즈노 렌타로 정무총감 기용으로 조선개혁의 인적 기초를 장악하였다. 또한 미즈노은 군령에 의한 무관총독의 군대통솔권을 배제하여 조선통치에서 군부를 배제하려고 하였다. 미즈노은 인사권과 군부배제로 조선개혁의 기초를 만들었다. 불완전하지만 하라는 미즈노을 통하여 식민지조선에 대한 문화통치의 기초를 다지게 되었다.


Conflicts and Mutual Concessions among Various Political Stances on Chosun Problem in 1919 Conflicts and mutual concessions among various political stances on Chosun problem made a distinct agenda in 1920’s Japan. Main character of her policy on Chosun was transformed into cultural one from the earlier military rule, after the 3‧1 Movement in 1919. This transformation was possible due to the political change in Japan as well as to the movements of Chosun people. As to Japan’s domestic politics, contests and concessions between Yamagata clique and political paties formed main reason for this transformation. Complicated political process led to assignment of Saito Makoto as a successor to Chosun consul Hasegawa Yoshimichi was a part of it ; it was possible because of co-option by Yamagata Aritomo who wanted continuous rule of Chosun and by Hara Takashi who aimed at weakening of Japanese army-led control in Chosun. Co-option of new Chosun consul was thus decided, however, a new field of contest appeared, that was the reformation of government organization. This second round contest between Yamagata and Hara ended by the former’s win and military based rule over Chosun was sustained. Under the situation, Hara tried to balance against Yamagata and his military clique by assigning Mizuno Rentaro as an inspector general. Mizuno tried to get rid of the military’s influence in Chosun by removing military consul’s control over armed forces and by reforming personnel management. At last, he was able to achieve his goal in Chosun, and Hara’s intent of establiushing cultural rule over Chosun was, even though in incomplete form, was embodied by Mizuno.


Conflicts and Mutual Concessions among Various Political Stances on Chosun Problem in 1919 Conflicts and mutual concessions among various political stances on Chosun problem made a distinct agenda in 1920’s Japan. Main character of her policy on Chosun was transformed into cultural one from the earlier military rule, after the 3‧1 Movement in 1919. This transformation was possible due to the political change in Japan as well as to the movements of Chosun people. As to Japan’s domestic politics, contests and concessions between Yamagata clique and political paties formed main reason for this transformation. Complicated political process led to assignment of Saito Makoto as a successor to Chosun consul Hasegawa Yoshimichi was a part of it ; it was possible because of co-option by Yamagata Aritomo who wanted continuous rule of Chosun and by Hara Takashi who aimed at weakening of Japanese army-led control in Chosun. Co-option of new Chosun consul was thus decided, however, a new field of contest appeared, that was the reformation of government organization. This second round contest between Yamagata and Hara ended by the former’s win and military based rule over Chosun was sustained. Under the situation, Hara tried to balance against Yamagata and his military clique by assigning Mizuno Rentaro as an inspector general. Mizuno tried to get rid of the military’s influence in Chosun by removing military consul’s control over armed forces and by reforming personnel management. At last, he was able to achieve his goal in Chosun, and Hara’s intent of establiushing cultural rule over Chosun was, even though in incomplete form, was embodied by Mizuno.