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Purpose: This study was purposed to identify the effect of pain monitoring program for improving the knowledge, attitude and assessment ability of cancer pain in oncology nurses. Methods: In this study pain monitoring program was developed based on the literature, and constructed it with various teaching method including several group lectures, workshop, focus group and implementation at the clinical practices. In order to test the effect of this program, contrast group, pretest-post test quasi-experimental design was designed. 46 oncology nurses randomly assigned to either control or experimental group. The tool used are 32 item scale for the evaluation of the nurses' knowledge, attitude toward pain modified by Kim(1997), which was originally developed by McCaffery and Ferrel(1995). Results: The pain monitoring program for the oncology nurses was statistically significant for improving the level of the knowledge about and attitude toward pain management, and pain assessment behavior. Conclusion: More sensitive multiple measurement tool for the attitude toward pain management needs to be developed. Nurses need more knowledge and effective attitude toward cancer pain management. Pain monitoring program in this study is effective to improve the quality of pain management.