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This study analyzed the relationship between family structure and socioeconomic background, and the psychological variables of adolescence. The 2003 Korea Youth Panel survey data were used for analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0. Family structure variables influenced the adolescence's psychological variables. The socioeconomic background of the family influenced the adolescence's psychological variables, and the results differed by gender. The results of this study can be used as a basic resource for adolescence counseling and guidance. In addition, the practical implications are that social programs working with poor families with adolescents and programs that promote a positive self-image for adolescents can apply this data if they recognize the gender differences.