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The Purpose of this investigation is to analyze the policy of Ming and Qing government that headed for ‘Little Government’ and tried to utilize lineage actually, and the responses of lineage, focusing on the construction and management of new district. With this work I hoped to bring to light the development of lineages and their various beings. I analyzed the process of the construction and management of Pinghe District and Ningyang District in sixteenth century and lineage society around the following three notions: First is the policy of Ming dynasty that pursed ‘Little Government’ which could achieve a maximum of efficiency with a minimum of effort; Second is the development of local society and its autonomy; third is the opposition and cooperation of lineages. After the investigation, I concluded as follows: First, the social and economis changes and problems in Fujian and its neighboring areas during Mid-Ming centered on the sparsely populated and less developed district, such as Pinghe and Ningyang. Social problems of inner frontier in which relatively larger population dwelt increased, as they developed inner places and commodity economics. The revolts in Luxi(蘆溪), for example, the revolt of Deong maoqi(鄧茂七), and the revolt of Su apu(蘇阿普) were the results of the problems. On the other hand, political and institutional problems began to appear. Lijia system and registration system which had been intended to constrain the population movement, were not carried out effectively. As a result, population emigrated from the well administrated areas in order to escape from tax collection and they gathered in inner trade center, where they could evade tax collection and state's control. Gradually they were in discord with existing lineage. Zeng Dunli(曾敦立) in Pinghe and Cao Wenye(曹文燁) in Ningyang were the members of existing lingeage. The central government made the cooperative lineage be a guide and tried to stabilize the area. The lineage tried to solidify its footing by means of national power. The construction of new district was the result. Second, lineage participated in the construction of the district. They supplied manpower and money in the work. Central government also supplied many sources deposited in county and district in the area, gave a prize to the leading men in the work by giving a official grade and the official hat and belt, and encouraged the work by making a notice of one hundred years and a notice of filial duty and righteousness constructed and letting their names be written in the biography of local gazettes. The honeymoon relation between the local lineage and central government in the early period continued afterward. They cooperated in constructing and repairing the wall of district and office. Lineage was very important in ruling local areas. Especially the main purpose of constructing new district was to rule the area stably. But the increasing number of districts resulted in heavy tax collecting and the stability of the area could not be maintained. The central government achieved the goal, that is, ‘Little Government’, by controling the relation between the existing lineage which wanted stability and development and the new lineage which pursued new order, and with it utilizing their cooperation. For example, Zeng zhang of the Zeng lineage of Pinghe could come to the post of Xiangbin(鄕賓) many times under the influence of national policy. Third, the lineage that participated in construction and management of new district reinforced lingage unification. For example, Pinghe district was constructed in 1519 and Zeng dunli compiled the first genealogy in 1523. Thirty years later, the second genealogy was edited again and many neighboring men of same family name were included. They made the shrine, kept in order the graveyard, dealt with a mountain suit of lineage, and relieved the poors among lineage. Ningyang district was been constructed in 1566, and twenty two years later Cao wenye in the district compiled his genealogy in 1588, which showed that the construction of new district was related with the development of lineage closely.


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Mid-Ming, Fujian, New District, Lineage Society, Zeng Dunli, Pinghe, Cao Wenye, Ningyang, Zeng Lineage, Cao Lineage