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A microcosmal experiment using a metagenomictechnique was designed to assess the efect of BTEX(benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) on an indigenousbacterial community in a Daejeon forest soil. A compositionalshift of bacterial groups in an artificial BTEX-contaminatedsoil was examined by the 16S rDNA PCR-DGE method.Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNAs in the dominant DGEbands showed that the number of Actinobacteria and Baciluspopulations increased. To confirm these observations, weperformed PCR to amplify the 23S rDNA and 16S rDNAagainst the sample metagenome using Actinobacteria-targetingand Bacilli-specific primer sets, respectively. The result furtherconfirmed that a bacterial comunity containing Actinobacteriaand Bacillus was affected by BTEX.