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A new type of material for orthopaedic devices, a three-dimensional braided carbon ber-reinforced nylon 6 (C3D/MCN) composite,was prepared by anionic polymerization. It was characterized by using a block-on-ring wear tester equipped with real-time friction mea-surement capabilities. Scanning electron microscope and an optical microscope were used to study the wear surfaces of the compositesand metallic ring counterpart. The eects of carbon-ber volume fraction, braiding angle, and friction condition on the tribological prop-erties and wear mechanism of C3D/MCN composites were observed. Experiments showed an optimum wear resistance when the carbon-conditions. The wear mechanism under dry sliding conditions is adhesive wear and abrasive wear. The C3D/MCN composites exhibitedmainly abrasive wear under Hank’s-solution-lubricated conditions.