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The purpose of this study was to compare personality existed in the populations of the mentally retarded with and without Down syndrome. For this purpose, two research questions were proposed. (a) Is there any difference of personality existed between two groups? (b) Is there any difference of sub-personality existed between two groups by disability degree? Participants in this are 159 people with mental retardation(the mentally retarded with Down syndrom: 82, the mentally retarded without Down syndrom : 77) in P and S cities. First of all, the reliability in measurement instrument was verified through a pre-study. For the first research question, t-test was used. And two way ANOVA was used to investigate the second research question. The results of this study were as follows:First, according to the result of t-test, there were significant differences of personality scores between two groups. And there were significant differences between the mentally retarded with and without Down syndrome regard to expectation of success, outerdirectedness, positive or negative responding tendency, curiosity among sub-personality factors. Second, the result of the two way ANOVA analysis, no meaningful statistically difference in personality by degree of the impairment. But It showed difference regard to effectancy motivation, expectation of success, curiosity among sub-personality factors between the mentally retarded with and without Down syndrome by impairment degree.