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Many strawberry cultivars in Korea and Japan are of mixed genetic pedigrees. We performed a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) study to distinguish among ten strawberry cultivars that have dominated the Korean and Japanese markets for the past 10 years. The cultivars examined were ‘Akihime’, ‘Tochinomine’, ‘Maeyhang’, ‘Sachinoka’, ‘Red Pearl’, ‘Tochiotome’, ‘Askarubi’, ‘Toyonoka’, ‘Nyoho’, and ‘Suhong’. In order to identify an optimal set of primers for generating polymorphic DNA products, we tested genomic DNA from petals or leaves with 163 10-mer primers. A set of five primers generated 15 polymorphic DNA fragments and each of the ten cultivars exhibited its own characteristic pattern of RAPD products. On average, seven different DNA bands were detected between any two given cultivars. A phylogenetic tree that was constructed on the basis of these 15 polymorphic DNA bands, reflects breeding pedigrees of some cultivars. Therefore, the data should assist breeders in rapid and accurate identification of strawberry cultivars.