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Effect of organic loading rate on UASB performance was evaluated under the conditions of same surface area/reactorvolume ratio and different reactor diameter. At the low loading rate of 0.4 kg COD/m3 d, reactor performance was notaffected by reactor diameter. At the organic loading rate of 6 kg COD/m3 d, however, volatile acid accumulation andlow COD removal efficiency is observed in reactor having 6.4 cm diameter, while volatile acid is not accumulated atall and high COD removal efficiency is observed in reactor having 3 cm diameter. Such a difference of reactor performancedepending on reactor diameter can be explained that sludge bed can be fluidized by evolved gas bubble innarrow reactor, while sludge bed can not be fluidized by evolved gas bubble only in wide reactor. At a high organicloading rate of 20 kg COD/m3 d, it can be judged that there is no relation between reactor configuration and reactorperformance because all reactors showed very low COD removal efficiencies regardless of reactor diameter. Narrowand tall type reactor is favorable condition for making sludge bed fluidization at a constant surface area/reactor volumeratio. Thus, it can be judged that reactor configuration and sludge bed fluidization have great influence to reactor performance.