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Objective:This study is aimed to see ultrastructural changes of pineal gland in rats exposed to microwaves. Methods : We conducted an experiment by exposing rats at the electromagnetic wave frequency of 2.45GHz, using with an EMR(electromagnetic radiation) emitting apparatus to study the effect of electromagnetic wave on the pineal gland. Paying especial attention to measure damages to pineal gland cells in the brain, we set the levels of EMR according to the duration of electromagnetic wave exposure at 1.2 joules(20min exposure), 2.4 joules(40min exposure), 3.6 joules(60 min exposure), and 4.8 joules(80min exposure) per 1cm2. Results : Compared with normal cells, main histologic changes were observed with an electron microscope included swelling of the pineal gland cells, a decrease in the electron density of interstitial tissue, an increase in the distances between pineal gland cells, an increase in number of lipid-droplets, and swelling of mitochondria. Especially in those pineal cells exposed to EMR for 80 min, severe swelling of mitochondria and a slight increase in lysosome were observed. Conclusion : The authors could identify the harmful effect of microwave by observing abnormal ultrastructural changes of pineal cell in rat according to the increasement of electromagnetic radiation. Key words:Pineal gland;Microwave;Ultrastructure.