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This paper presents a network capacity model that can be used as an analytical tool for strategic planning and resource allocation for multimodal transportation systems. In the context of freight transportation, the multimodal network capacity problem (MNCP) is formulated as a mathematical model of nonlinear bi-level optimization problem. Given network configuration and freight demand for multiple origin-destination pairs, the MNCP model is designed to determine the maximum flow that the network can accommodate. To solve the MNCP, a heuristic solution algorithm is developed on the basis of a linear approximation method. A hypothetical exercise shows that the MNCP model and solution algorithm can be successfully implemented and applied to not only estimate the capacity of multimodal network, but also to identify the capacity gaps over all individual facilities in the network, including intermodal facilities. Transportation agencies and planners would benefit from the MNCP model in identifying investment priorities and thus developing sustainable transportation systems in a manner that considers all feasible modes as well as low-cost capacity improvements.