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Information on genetic diversity and relationships among the breeding materials is essential to the plant breeders in theefficient improvement of crops. The objective of this study was to determine the consistency between two methods of measuringped) and the DNA-based genetic similarity (GSDNA), among 86Korean soybean(Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars bred between 1933 and 2002. GSped was estimated from coefficient of parentage(CP) among 86 Korea-bred soybean cultivars representing diferent eras, breding methods and their utilization. Polymerase chainreaction (PCR) with twenty simple sequence repeat (SR) markers was used for estimation of GSDNA for the same set of cultivarsped. The mean of 3,655 GSped pairwise comparisons was 0.0314 with the range from 0.000 to 0.750, withhigher distribution in the region of GS < 0.05. In contrast, GSDNA with the mean of 0.1716 was distributed more normaly andmostly between 0.10 and 0.15. In spite of substantially diferent means and distributions of the two diversity measurements, a sig-nificant correlation (r = 0.256, P < 0.01) was detected between the two GS matrix. Also, cluster analyses based on average linkagealgorithm for GSped and unweighed pair group method for GSDNA were made to compare the cultivar groups classified by the twomethods of GS estimation. The ten groups clasified by GSped included 2 to 22 cultivars, while the 7 groups classified by GSDNAincluded 2 to 25 cultivars. GSDNA may provide more accurate estimate of true genetic resemblance among soybean cultivars. Butthe significant corelation between two estimates indicated that GSped parents in a breeding program.