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The molecular phylogeny of 12 species of Camponotus ants in Korea was examined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers as inputs for an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and cluster analysis to describe the relationships between species. For comparison, morphometric data (based on 10 morphological characters) were also gathered for phylogenetic analysis. Assessments of similarity between species were made, and the results of these assessments are compared for the molecular and morphological data sets. In the morphometric analysis, the following groups were identified: (i) C. atrox, C. kiusuensis, C. japonicus and C. concavus (93% similarity); (ii) C. sp. 1 (be diverging at 80% similarity); (iii) C. jejuensis, C. sp. 3, C. itoi, C. nawai and C. tokioensis (94.5% similarity); and (iv) C. nipponensis and C. quadrinotatus (94.5% similarity). Formica fusca was 73.5% similar to the 12 Camponotus species studied here. The group comprising C. nawai and C. tokioensis had the highest similarity index (97.36%), followed by the group comprising C. jejuensis and C. sp. 3 (95%), then C. atrox and C. kiusuensis (94.5%), and then C. nipponensis and C. quadrinotatus (93.5%). In the molecular analysis the following groups were identified: (i) C. atrox and C. jejuensis (30% similarity); (ii) C. concavus, C. japonicus and C. itoi (25% similarity); (iii) C. kiusuensis, C. nawai, C. sp. 3, C. nipponensis, C. quadrinotatus and C. sp. 1 (24% similarity); and (iv) C. tokioensis (be diverging at 23% similarity). The most closely related group in the molecular analysis was C. nawai and C. sp. 3 (75% similarity), followed by C. concavus and C. japonicus (50.5% similarity), then C. atrox and C. jejuensis (30%), and then C. quadrinotatus and C. sp. 1. Camponotus tokioensis was the least closely related to other species among the 12 species studied. Although C. jejuensis and C. tokioensis were found to be 93.6% similar on the basis of morphometric data, molecular data indicated only 23% similarity, the lowest similarity index between any two species considered here. Camponotus jejuensis has marked morphological similarities to C. tokioensis, but on the basis of molecular data gathered in the present study, we refute the proposal that they are synonyms or sister species.