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The interpretation that Twain's discourse changed from conservative in his early texts into liberal in his later texts has been dominant among Twain scholars. Ethics and ecology, the two upcoming disciplines in academia, subvert the dominant interpretation. French philosopher Michel Foucault's "ethics of experimentation" discussed in later work, The Use of Pleasure (1984), in association with Australian environmentalist Lesley Head's "non-equilibrium ecology" introduced in Cultural Landscape and Environmental Change (2000), illumines experimental and revolutionary aspect in Twain's early travelogue Roughing It (1872). In contrast with American historian Frederik Turner's "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" (1893), which claims the power of myth as a means to overcome disorder, Twain's early discourse reveals its demythifying post-anthropocentric prevision, the ethics of experimentation.