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We describe an immediately developed common peroneal nerve palsy in a 53-year-old slender man who underwent anterior cervical discectomy. Cause of the palsy is uncertain, however, it is presumed to be stretching injury with regard to the patient positioning rather than to be direct compression in operative procedure. He suffered incomplete common peroneal nerve injury for about 8 months. He undertook two times of electromyographic examination suggesting demyelinating injury and received conservative treatment, finally made a favorable although not complete recovery. In this report, we suggest the possible risk factors, preventive measures, therapeutic options and relevant outcome of this unwanted result. Key words:Common peroneal nerve;Palsy;Anterior cervical discectomy.