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Currently an increase in domestic sewage and industrial wastewater causes serious water pollution in Korea. To solve water pollution problems, activated sludge(AS) system is generally used in wastewater treatment plant but this process is so ineffective in nitrogen and phosphorus. Even if AS system is the major process, it must be improved instantly so as to remove nitrogen and phosphorus. Otherwise, the serious water pollution problems can't be resolved with AS system. Therefore this study focused on the differences of the removal efficiency and the total construction cost between Advanced Step Aeration(ASA) system and conventional activated sludge system. The following is summarized as resulted in this study. This study focused on the comparisons of the treatment characteristics between ASA system and AS system. The results from operating ASA system indicated that the removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, and SS were 89.9%, 74.5%, and 89.0% respectively. On the other hand, the removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, and SS for AS system were 89.5%, 71.8%, and 89.5% respectively. And the different constructions cost of each system for small scale treatment (100m3/day) was calculated 225,452,000KRW in ASA system and 218,290,000KRW in AS system. The construction cost of ASA system was 3.28% higher than AS system.