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Background : The overall response (20-30%) to chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is quite poor. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation. There is increasing evidence suggesting that the induction of HO-1 might have an important protective effect against oxidative stress including cisplatin containing chemotherapy. This study retrospectively investigated the relationship between HO-1 expression and the response to chemotherapy containing cisplatinin advanced NSCLC patients.Material and Methods : The medical records including the responses to chemotherapy of fifty nine cases were evaluated retrospectively, and the tissue samples of these patients were immunohistochemically stained for HO-1.Results : Forty three of the fifty nine patients(72.8%) showed positive staining for HO-1 in their cancer tissues. There was no significant difference according to the cell type, stage and tumor size. In addition, there was no correlation between HO-1 expression and the responses to chemotherapy.Conclusion : HO-1 expression in tumor tissue dose not predict the response to cisplatin containing chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. Further prospective studies with a larger number of patients will be needed to confirm these results.(Tuberc Respir Dis 2006; 60: 314-320)