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민족 개념은 국가, 국민, 종족 등의 개념과 밀접하게 연관된 개념으로서, 특히 근대 이후 중요한 역사적-이념적 역할을 담당해 왔다. 이 글은 민족 개념이 함축하는 몇 가지 철학적 문제들을 검토한 후, 한국 민족주의가 가진 두 얼굴을 조명해보려 한다. 민족 개념은 가족, 국가, 시민사회 등과 더불어 대표적인 사회적 보편자로서 그 존재론적 위상이 분명하지는 않다. 그럼에도 중세사회가 근대사회로 나아가면서 등장한 대표적인 존재단위들 중 하나로서 기능해 왔다. 이 글은 우선 ‘민족’ 이라는 개념이 쉽게 정의하기 어려운 이유들을 검토한다. 한국에서 민족주의는 특히 일제 시대에 핵심적인 사조로서 성립했으며, 자유주의, 사회주의와 더불어 이념의 삼각형을 형성했다. 일제하 민족주의는 한국인들의 전반적인 감정으로 자리잡았으며 제국주의에 대한 저항을 성격을 띠었다. 이 글에서는 특히 여운형, 백남운, 박헌영 등 사회주의자들의 민족주의관에 주목했다. 해방후 민족주의는 국가주의로 변질하기 시작했다. 이 글에서는 특히 이승만, 안호상, 양우정 등의 ‘일민주의’를 검토했으며, 이 사조가 진정한 민족주의와는 거리가 먼 철저한 국가주의, 통치이데올로기임을 강조했다. 특히 안호상의 저작들을 검토함으로써 저항적 민족주의가 어떤 과정을 통해서 국가주의로 변질되어 갔는가를 보여주고자 했다.해방후 민족주의는 국가주의로 변질하기 시작했다. 이 글에서는 특히 이승만, 안호상, 양우정 등의 ‘일민주의’를 검토했으며, 이 사조가 진정한 민족주의와는 거리가 먼 철저한 국가주의, 통치이데올로기임을 강조했다. 특히 안호상의 저작들을 검토함으로써 저항적 민족주의가 어떤 과정을 통해서 국가주의로 변질되어 갔는가를 보여주고자 했다. 군정 시대에도 한국 민족주의의 두 얼굴을 지속되었다. 이번에는 근대성의 최고의 가치로 놓는 박정희, 박종홍 등의 국가주의와 장준하 등 독재에 저항한 인물들이 대립했다는 점을 통해서, 자유주의 정권에서 시작된 민족주의의 두 얼굴이 어떻게 지속되었는가를 밝히려 했다. 오늘날 민족주의는 이전과는 다른 양상을 띠고서 변화하고 있으나, 여전히 중요한 한 이데올로기로서 작동하고 있다고 할 수 있다.


The Two Faces of Korean Nationalism Lee Jeong-Woo The concept of nation(民族) is concerned very closely with the concepts of state, nation(國民), ethnics, and particularly played the historical-ideological role from the age of modernity. The main purpose of this paper is to examine some philosophical problems implied in this concept, and to illuminate the two faces of Korean nationalism. The concept of nationalism is the representative social universal among family, state, civil society etc. But its ontological status is far from clear. Nevertheless when the medieval world had transformed to the modern world, nationalism did the role of one of the representative entities of that time. This paper begins with examining the reason why the concept of “nation” is so difficult to define. Nationalism had been established as the main thought in the epoque of Japanese imperialism, and formed the ideological triangle with liberalism and socialism. Uuder the Japanese imperialism nationalim was the general sentiment of Korean people, and had the mode of resistance to imperialism. In this paper, I concentrated to the figures Yeo Woon-Hyung, Paek Nam-Woon, Park Hun-Young, the socialists’ concern to nationalism. After Liberation the Korean nationalism(民族主義) had changed to state-nationalism(國家主義). I have examined especially the “One-Nationalism(一民主義)” of Lee Seung-Man, Ahn Ho-Sang, and Yang Woo-Jeong. This thought was far from true nationalism. It was a state-nationalism, governing ideology. In particular the books of Ahn Ho-sang shows how the resistant nationalism had changed to state-nationalism. In the period of fascism were kept up the two faces of Korean nationalism, in this time the state-nationalims of Park Jeong-Hee and Park Chong-Hong that concentrated the modernity values, and Jang Joon-Ha etc. that resisted to the dictatorship.


The Two Faces of Korean Nationalism Lee Jeong-Woo The concept of nation(民族) is concerned very closely with the concepts of state, nation(國民), ethnics, and particularly played the historical-ideological role from the age of modernity. The main purpose of this paper is to examine some philosophical problems implied in this concept, and to illuminate the two faces of Korean nationalism. The concept of nationalism is the representative social universal among family, state, civil society etc. But its ontological status is far from clear. Nevertheless when the medieval world had transformed to the modern world, nationalism did the role of one of the representative entities of that time. This paper begins with examining the reason why the concept of “nation” is so difficult to define. Nationalism had been established as the main thought in the epoque of Japanese imperialism, and formed the ideological triangle with liberalism and socialism. Uuder the Japanese imperialism nationalim was the general sentiment of Korean people, and had the mode of resistance to imperialism. In this paper, I concentrated to the figures Yeo Woon-Hyung, Paek Nam-Woon, Park Hun-Young, the socialists’ concern to nationalism. After Liberation the Korean nationalism(民族主義) had changed to state-nationalism(國家主義). I have examined especially the “One-Nationalism(一民主義)” of Lee Seung-Man, Ahn Ho-Sang, and Yang Woo-Jeong. This thought was far from true nationalism. It was a state-nationalism, governing ideology. In particular the books of Ahn Ho-sang shows how the resistant nationalism had changed to state-nationalism. In the period of fascism were kept up the two faces of Korean nationalism, in this time the state-nationalims of Park Jeong-Hee and Park Chong-Hong that concentrated the modernity values, and Jang Joon-Ha etc. that resisted to the dictatorship.