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This study was designed to determine the effects of daidzein (DE) on hepatic lipid metabolism in chicks fed with low protein (LP) diet based on casein. In experiment 1, the male chicks were fed with one of the three levels of dietary protein containing 10.95%, 21.9% and 43.8% protein content for 2 days. In experiment 2, the chicks were fed one of the three levels of protein with or without DE at 1,000 mg/kg diet for 2 days. Experiment 3 was conducted to compare DE (LP+DE) with estradiol (LP+E2) in chicks fed with LP diet for 7 days. Plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid profiles, activities of hepatic malic enzyme and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) were measured. Transcriptions of hepatic fatty acid synthase, apolipoprotein-B (APO-B), and fructose bisphosphatase mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. Increasing dietary protein levels markedly decreased the concentrations of plasma triglycerides, hepatic total lipids, hepatic TG, and the mRNA transcriptions while the increased dietary protein levels increased hepatic ICDH activities in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the effects of dietary protein levels on blood and hepatic lipid content were more prominent than those of the additional DE. Interestingly, plasma TG levels were affected by DE supplementation (p<0.05). In experiment 3, DE inhibited APO-B mRNA expressions and stimulated the accumulation of lipid in the liver through mechanisms different from E2. In this study, we demonstrate that DE has beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles, but that it inhibits APO-B mRNA transcription and aggravates the fatty liver induced by LP diet in chicks.