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Primary intramedullary oligodendroglioma is very rare, accounting for only about 1% of all intramedullary spinal cord tumor. We present a case of intramedullary oligodendroglioma in a 30-year-old women. Magnetic resonance image showed an intramedullary mass in the T11-L1 region. Decompressive laminectomy and partial mass removal was performed, however, neurologic state became worse. The histological examination revealed oligodendroglioma. The intramedullary oligodendroglioma, although it is a rare entity, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord tumors. Key words:Spinal cord tumor;Intramedullary oligodendroglioma.