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Epi-xanthatin analogs containing hydrophilic substituents such as carboxylic acid, alcohol, morpholine, amino acid, and glucose derivatives were synthesized and their in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity were evaluated. The target compounds were generally cytotoxic against tumor cell lines of human origin with ED50 values of 0.1~30 mg/ml, except the highly hydrophilic analog 6 containing aspartic acid. Contrary to the potent cytotoxicity, weakly hydrophilic analogs 2 and 8 were not active in vivo, or even toxic to the test animals. As a result, hydrophilic analog of epi-xanthatin did not show in vitro cytotoxicity and hydrophobic analogs did not show in vivo antitumor activity, thus it is presumed that amphiphilic analogs or those with medium hydrophilicity would exhibit the antitumor potency in vivo.