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A study was conducted to predict the rumen microbial protein production based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in buffaloes fed a diet of wheat straw and concentrate (40:60) at four fixed levels of feed intake. (95, 80, 60 and 40% of preliminary voluntary feed intake) following experimental protocol of IAEA (Phase I). The buffaloes were allocated according to a 4횞4 latin square design. The urinary allantoin, uric acid, total PD excretion (mmol/d) in treatments L-95, L-80, L-60 and L-40 was 20.13, 16.00, 12.96 and 9.17; 1.88, 2.12, 2.11 and 2.15; 22.01, 18.12, 15.07 and 11.32, respectively and were significantly (p<0.05) different among treatments except for uric acid. The rate of PD excretion (mmol/d) was positively correlated with the digestible organic matter intake. Variations were observed in PD and creatinine concentration in spot samples collected at 6-hour interval. However, daily PD:Creatinine ratio (PDC index) appears to be a reasonably good predictor of microbial-N supply. The contribution of basal purine excretion to total excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was determined in pre-fasting period followed by a fasting period of 6 d (Phase II). Daily PD and creatinine excretion (mmol/kg W0.75) during fasting averaged 0.117 and 0.456 respectively for buffaloes. The xcretion rates of PD decreased significantly (p<0.01) during fasting compare to pre-fasting period, the urinary creatinine excretion remained almost similar. Except for creatinine, plasma concentration of target parameters significantly (p<0.01) declined during fasting. Likewise, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal clearance of allantoin and uric acid also decreased. Based on the PD excretion rates during fasting and at different levels of feed intake obtained in this study, a relationship between daily urinary PD excretion (Y-mmol) and microbial purine absorption (X-mmol) was developed for buffaloes as Y = 0.74X+0.117 kg W0.75. The microbial N supply (g/kg DOMI) remained statistically similar irrespective of dietary treatment. The results showed that excretion of urinary purine derivatives is positively correlated with the levels of feed intake in Murrah buffaloes and thus, estimation of urinary purine derivatives and PDC index could be used to determine microbial nitrogen supply when there is large variation in level of feed intake.