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황해도 굿은 음악무용연극 등의 예술적 요소로 이루어진 문화연행(cultural performance)이다. 이 중 음악은 굿에서 가장 핵심적인 요소인데, 이는 굿을 주재하는 무당이 노래로 신(神)을 모시고 놀리기 때문이다. 그렇다고 굿에서 연행되는 모든 노래가 신성(神聖)한 것은 아니다. 무당은 굿판에 강림한 신과 굿판에 모여든 단골을 놀리기 위하여 많은 오락적인 노래를 부르기도 한다. 이 글에서는 황해도 굿에서 신을 모시는 청배무가(請拜巫歌)로 많이 불려지는 <만세바지>를 분석하여, 어떤 음악적 요소가 그 노래를 신성하게 여겨지게 만드는가를 살펴본다.<만세바지> 무가의 음악적 특징은 ①1옥타브 이내의 좁은 음역에서 순차진행에 의해 불려지는 선율 ②3~4개의 선율형의 계속되는 반복 ③음악적 기교를 최대한 억제하여 일자일음식(一字一音式)으로 노랫말의 명확한 전달을 중시하는 점 ④제한된 음정과 창법에 의한 노래 ⑤기본 장고형의 계속되는 반복 등으로 요약될 수 있다. <만세바지> 무가는 음악가의 음악적 창조성을 최소화한 지극히 형식적인 노래를 ‘투박한 노래’(impoverished songs)이다. 이런 노래는 전라도의 씻김굿 무가를 부르는 단골들의 노래처럼 화려하지 않은 것이 무척 대조적이다. 황해도 <만세바지>는 노래의 예술성보다는 종교적인 효율성을 강조하는 것이다.


Sacredness of Korean Shaman Song Lee, Yong-Shik* Hwanghae shaman ritual, called kut, is a ‘cultural performance’ that represents a culturally constructed system of symbolic communication among the shaman community. Constituted by a patterned and ordered sequence of ritual words, the kut requires both specific content and arrangement of shaman songs to invoke deities. Manse paji song, for instance, is characterized by formality (conventionality), stereotype (rigidity), condensation (fusion), and redundancy (repetition).  The most important factor in Manse paji is the clear deliverance of text. Since Manse paji is the symbolic code to establish communication between deities and a medium and to make the place a sacred one, the shaman has to deliver the texts as clearly as she can through syllabic singing. In order to avoid vague deliverance, the shaman minimizes musical articulation. She delivers the sacred words on a limited number of melodic phrases in the stepwise progression within a limited number of pentatonic tones that rarely extend beyond the 6th. The changgo accompanist also plays the basic drumming pattern with the least improvisation throughout the song, unlike in other Korean musical genres in which improvisation is highly esteemed. The almost total lack of individual artistic creativity involved in singing and drumming leads to an extreme formalization of the song. In a sense, Manse paji song is, what I call, a strictly formalized ‘impoverished song.’ The manner of impoverished singing is not peculiar to Hwanghae kut but is found in many solemn religious traditions. These traits in Manse paji, however, are in opposition to the hereditary shamans ritual song which exhibits the entertaining traits of theater. Manse paji is a strictly formalized and impoverished song that aims to be efficacious while maintaining the ritual as sacred.


Sacredness of Korean Shaman Song Lee, Yong-Shik* Hwanghae shaman ritual, called kut, is a ‘cultural performance’ that represents a culturally constructed system of symbolic communication among the shaman community. Constituted by a patterned and ordered sequence of ritual words, the kut requires both specific content and arrangement of shaman songs to invoke deities. Manse paji song, for instance, is characterized by formality (conventionality), stereotype (rigidity), condensation (fusion), and redundancy (repetition).  The most important factor in Manse paji is the clear deliverance of text. Since Manse paji is the symbolic code to establish communication between deities and a medium and to make the place a sacred one, the shaman has to deliver the texts as clearly as she can through syllabic singing. In order to avoid vague deliverance, the shaman minimizes musical articulation. She delivers the sacred words on a limited number of melodic phrases in the stepwise progression within a limited number of pentatonic tones that rarely extend beyond the 6th. The changgo accompanist also plays the basic drumming pattern with the least improvisation throughout the song, unlike in other Korean musical genres in which improvisation is highly esteemed. The almost total lack of individual artistic creativity involved in singing and drumming leads to an extreme formalization of the song. In a sense, Manse paji song is, what I call, a strictly formalized ‘impoverished song.’ The manner of impoverished singing is not peculiar to Hwanghae kut but is found in many solemn religious traditions. These traits in Manse paji, however, are in opposition to the hereditary shamans ritual song which exhibits the entertaining traits of theater. Manse paji is a strictly formalized and impoverished song that aims to be efficacious while maintaining the ritual as sacred.