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Objective:The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors for hematoma enlargement(HE) in the patients with spontaneous putaminal hemorrhage. Methods:Among the 620 patients with putaminal hemorrhage admitted to our hospital during the period of 1990-2000, sixty patients(9.7%) had HE on the second computed tomographic(CT) scan at the interval of mean 38 hours after attack(range 1.8-168 hours). Clinical features and CT findings of these 60 patients with HE were compared with those of the remaining 560 patients without HE. Results:Multivariate logistic regressional analysis revealed that the independent risk factors for HE were CT finding showing the separation of hematoma(odds ratio[OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-7.3, p=0.0006) or the hypodensity around or within hematoma(OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.6, p=0.0194), alcoholism(OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.0-11.7, p=0.0004), hematoma volume of 20-39cc(OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.0-6.3, p=0.0424), Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS) score of 8-11(OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.9, p=0.0046) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase>50 IU/L(OR 6.54, 95% CI 2.1-20.5, p= 0.0013). Conclusion:Alcoholism and liver dysfunction appear to increase the risk of HE in putaminal hemorrhage. Particularly, careful observation for HE is needed in the patients who are GCS score of 8-11 at the time of admission, who have hematoma volume of 20-39cc and the CT finding showing the separation of hematoma or the hypodensity around or within hematoma. Key words:Putaminal hemorrhage;Hematoma enlargement;Risk factor;Alcoholism;Liver dysfunction.