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Genetic and pharmacological studies in mice have demonstrated a complementary role for the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the control of food intake, energy balance and body weight. This study was designed to investigate the associations of a MC4R gene polymorphism on chicken growth and body composition traits in broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat. A SNP (G54C) was found in CDS region of chicken MC4R gene. The analysis of the least squares and variance revealed a significant association between the G54C SNP and BW, CW and SL at 7 wk of age, and there were significant differences in different genotypes (p<0.05). The results from protein secondary structure prediction and tertiary structure prediction showed that it appeared a helix in 13th amino acid and two strands at 14th and15th amino acid in mutant protein, respectively. It maybe induce the change of the activity or function of MC4R gene in poultry.