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]This paper aims to survey the phonemic distribution of native sinple word in Korean using quantitative method and to explain the reason to the remarkable tendencies. It is supposed that the phoneme distribution of the native simple word could reflect the typological character and historical change in Korean. On this assumption, 6,364 native simple words selected from a comtemporary dictionary were analyzed by computer and the distributions of phonemes were compared in various environments with each other.More than 87% of syllable have consonant as a syllable-initial, and more than 60% of syllable have no consonant as a syllable-final. Accordingly, we can know that the CV structure is most prominent and prevalent in Korean. While the obstruent consonants are most plentiful in syllable-initial position, the sonorant consonants are most plentiful in syllable-final position. It is very rare that the verb and adjective which have /n(ㄴ)/ and / (ㅇ)/ as a stem-final consonant. The thing that more than 83% of vowel is monophthong in the whole native simple word reveals that Korean shows the universality too in vowel distribution. However, It is unique that 'a(아)' and 'i(이)' make many appearances because of historical vowel change and vowel harmony. The distribution of 'i(이)' is low in word-initial but is very high in word-final and word-final of open syllable. These were caused by that 'i(이)' was neutral in vowel harmony. Distributions of consonant in one-syllable word are, on the whole, similar to the distribution in whole word. But, the distribution of vowel is equalized to decrease homonyms. One-syllable verb or adjective with open syllable is very rare. This reflects peculiar character of inflection in Korean.