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Methods of calculation of polarizers and splitters for visible spectra based on a multi-layer dielectric system are considered. Practical formulas for calculation are given. For example the cases of a splitter calculation when RS > 70% and RP £ 30% or RS = RP were considered. The formulas of the effective layers method are of practical use. The optical characteristics of calculated and fabricated polarizers and splitters for 650 nm and 780 nm wavelengths are presented.