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A direct transfer substructure method is presented in this paper for analyzing the dynamic characteristics and the seismic random responses of a series reactor. This method combines the concept of FRF (frequency response function) and the transfer matrix algorithm with the substructure approach. The inner degrees of freedom of each substructure are eliminated in the process of reconstruction and the computation cost is reduced greatly. With the convenient solution procedure, the dynamic characteristics analysis of the structure is valid and efficient. Associated with the pseudo excitation algorithm, the direct transfer substructure method is applied to investigating the seismic random responses of the series reactor. The numerical results demonstrate that the presented method is efficient and practicable in engineering. Finally, a precise time integration method is employed in performing a time-history analysis on the series reactor under El Centro and Taft earthquake waves.