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The effect of dietary fatty acid supplementation on milk production, milk composition and plasma constituents in dairy cows was examined. Dietary fatty acids including mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid were given to cows from 2 weeks before and 8 weeks after parturition. Weekly gain of daily milk production was increased gradually during early lactation period and reached a plateau at 4 weeks after parturition. Weekly gain of daily milk production in lactating cows received dietary fatty acids was significantly higher than that of cows given a control diet alone. Although milk lactose concentration was slightly decreased by dietary fatty acid supplementation, milk fat and protein were not significantly influenced by dietary fatty acid supplementation. Dietary fatty acids did not affect plasma concentrations of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose during postpartum. It is suggested that dietary fatty acid supplementation has the potency to enhance energy balance and improve milk yield without any adverse effects on milk composition.